The Lititz Record, Friday Morning, May 12, 1893

TEACHERS’ EXAMINATION – County Superintendent M.J. Brecht has announced the following dates, places and instruction for the examination of applicants for schools in Lancaster County, the examinations to begin at 9 A.M.:

    • May 8. Districts north and west, Lancaster.
    • May 9. Districts east and south, Lancaster.
    • May 10. Mount Joy and Vicinity, Lancaster.
    • May 13. New Holland and vicinity, Lancaster.
    • June 30. Manor and districts south, Lancaster.
    [There are 33 dates listed to cover all the townships and boroughs. I have excerpted those of interest to Warwick township.]

    • June 13. Clay township, Clay.
    • June 14. Manheim township, Neffsville.
    • June 15. Penn township and Manheim borough, Manheim.
    • June 19. Warwick township and Lititz borough, Lititz.
    • June 28. Elizabeth township, Brickerville.

The examination will be oral and written. Applicants will please come prepared to submit their written work in ink.

The applicants who are entitled and who wish to enter the special examinations published in this list must obtain permission from the boards where they intend to make application. In all other cases applicants should be examined in the district in which they intend to teach. Where to examination is held in a district, the applicant will choose any place excepting Manor, Rapho, Sadsbury and Salisbury townships most convenient to himself.

Applicants must be able not only to state facts of knowledge in the different branches of study, but must be able also to explain intelligently how such facts should be presented to the mind of the pupil.

Teachers who have branches of study marked “passed” upon their certificates will be examined in all the branches where no evidence of improvement is shown.

Except for special reasons, no second or re-examination will be granted to any one. The Annual Special Examination in August will not be held this year.

All who are professionally interested in the Lancaster County Teachers’ Institute are requested to meet the County Superintendent in his office on Thursday, July 6, at 10 A.M., for the purpose of arranging the general programme of the next County Institute.


The Lititz Record, Friday Morning, May 26, 1893

THE FREE BOOK LAW – Provisions of the Bill Signed by the Governor Last Week – The free text book bill, which was signed by the governor, provides:

Section 1.- Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania in general assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, that section first of an “Act, entitled, an act, authorizing school directors to purchase school books out of the district funds,” approved June 15, 1885, which reads as follows:

“That school directors or controllers may purchase text books, for use in the public school of their respective school districts, out of the school funds of the district, and, when so procured, the necessary books shall be supplied, free of costs, to each pupil for use in the schools of said district, subject to the orders of the directors thereof, whose duty it shall be to provide for the safe keeping and care of the books, which shall be returned at the closed of the annual school term in each year, or as the board may direct.,” be and the same is hereby amended so as to read as follows:

SEC. 1. That school directors or controllers shall purchase text books and other necessary supplies, for use in the public schools of their respective school districts, as such new text books and supplies are required. In addition to those at present in use in the hands of pupils or owned by the school districts, out of the school fund of the district, and, when so procured, the necessary books and school supplies shall be furnished, free of cost, for use in the schools of said district, subject to the orders of the directors or controllers thereof, whose duty it shall be to provide for the return of and for the safe keeping and care of the books, which shall be returned at the close of the annual school term in each year, or as the board may direct.”


The Lititz Record, Friday Morning, June 2, 1893

THE BEST OF REASONS – The governor in vetoing the compulsory education bill gives the best of reasons for his action. He concludes that the proposed system would be so intricate, burdensome, elaborate and expensive; that it would either break of its own weight or be utterly neglected and ineffective. That is true. And here is another fact as forcibly presented: “That [compulsory] feature of a common school system involves serious political, educational and social problems. They have not yet been definitely or satisfactorily solved by the experience of other states in grappling with them; therefore it is needful that sure ground should be occupied, in order that it may be successfully maintained.” The advocates of compulsory education must look beyond their beautiful theories; they ought not close their eyes to the experiences of half a dozen states in the West. Wherever it has had trial, there was demoralization of schools and the attending social and political troubles. Particularly were Illinois and Minnesota disturbed, and these states hastened to return to the simple free school system that had its origin in New England.

Pennsylvania is liberally patronizing the public schools; and as it has provided free books and supplies, there will be fewer non-attendants than heretofore. In this free country this is about the extent to which government can prudently act. It supplies the buildings, apparatus, teachers and supervisors. No more inducements can be offered. Pupils must not be paid for attending school, neither must they be driven; and with these provisions there is no doubt whatever that the proportion of illiteracy would be greater than at present. The governor has given the best of reasons for disapproval for the compulsory education bill. His veto message ought to impress the Lancaster county teachers, who have been in the habit of declaring in convention for compulsory education.


The Lititz Record, Friday Morning, June 9, 1893

JUNE JOTTINGS – The new Warwick school board met at the Warwick House on Monday and organized by electing Abner Risser, president, Henry R. Erb secretary, and N.B. Leaman treasurer


The Lititz Record, Friday Morning, June 23, 1893

TEACHERS’ EXAMINATION – There Were Only Two in the Class and the Examination was of Short Duration – The teachers’ examination for Lititz borough and Warwick township was held at this place, on Monday last. Only two applicants presented themselves to be examined, and both received certificates.

The following questions were submitted to the applicants:

  1. Paris is about 2° 20’ east of Greenwich; New York 74° 3’ west of Greenwich. When it is 10 o’clock in the morning in Paris, what is the true time at New York?
  2. Which is the heavier and how much – an ounce of lead or an ounce of gold?
  3. A barn worth $900 was insured for two-thirds of its value for $3.75. What was the rate of insurance?
  4. Which is the better for me to buy – 6 per cent bonds at 72, or to invest my money in a mortgage bearing 8 per cent?
  5. A and B engage to do a piece of work for $385; A worked three-fourths as many days as B plus five days and received $175. How many days did each work?
  6. I wish to raise $550 by having my note discounted at bank for two months and fifteen days, at six per cent. What must be the face of the note?


  1. Where was Foi Du Quesna? Is Du Quesne an English name?
  2. What do you understand by thirteen original states?
  3. How long was Washington President of the United States? Name three events of his administration.
  4. What were the Berlin and Milan Decrees and Orders in Council?
  5. Who was at the head of the French government when these decrees were prolulgated?


  1. Works on teaching which you have read.
  2. What is a fraction?
  3. What is meant by a unit?
  4. When would you begin to teach fractions to a child, and your method.


  1. How does animal matter differ from a turnip?
  2. What is the pressure of the atmosphere to the square inch?


  1. Structure of the nervous system. Difference between arterial and venous blood, and why the difference?
  2. What is meant by the skeleton?


  1. Analysis of sentences and parsing.
  2. Rule for forming the plural of nouns.
  3. I took my “cue” from his remarks. What is meant by cue?

ORTHOGRAPHY [SPELLING for those who don’t know!]

Cue, queue, news, terrible, sigh, valuable, acme, luxury, jewels, crystal, specimen, prophecy, foibles, marvelous, peculiar, wrests, sympathy, poignant, imbecile, system, sedate, pensive, despondency, Pharisees.

The Warwick Teachers Appointed – On Monday afternoon the Warwick school board met at the Warwick House, when they made the following appointments:

  • Warwick No. 1 – J.B. Haag
  • Warwick, No. 2 – D.W. Dietrich
  • Kissel Hill – J.J. Biemesdeerfer
  • Union – Elam E. Habecker
  • Huber’s – J.W.G. Hershey
  • Brunnerville – J.F. Hoch
  • Millway – C.B. Zwally
  • Lower Rothsville – Isaac M. Witmer
  • Upper Rothsville – John F. Ruth
  • Fairview – Nathan Reist
  • Lexington – C.W. Snyder
  • Look Out – Cyrus R. Gibbel
  • Sunnyside – Kate L. Wertz
  • Millport – Carrie B. Weidler
  • Buch’s – Bertha Forney
  • Rome – Maud Huebener
  • Pleasant View – A.N. Stauter


The Lititz Record, Friday Morning, July 28, 1893

The Warwick School Board and the teachers appointed for the district will meet at the Warwick House on Saturday to select books and supplies for the coming term. No doubt they will be greeted with a lots of book agents.


The Lititz Record, Friday Morning, August 11, 1893

Millions for the Public Schools – The distribution of the $5,000,000 appropriation to the public schools is now under way at the state treasury on warrants issued by the superintendent of public instruction. These payments are for the year ended June, 1893. Next year and the year following, by reason of the last Legislature’s liberality, the schools will get $5,500,000.

This increase of $500,000 a year has been misinterpreted by many as being a special provision for the purchase of free text books, supplies, etc. On account of this misunderstanding frequent inquiries have been received at the department of public instruction from school directors and others interested, asking for information on the subject. These have all been answered to the effect that no part of the appropriation was specially appropriated for such purpose.

The increased appropriation will not be available until the close of the current school year ending the first Monday of June, 1894, the whole amount of which is to be paid for support of the public schools in the several districts and to be used as the funds raised in the several districts by local taxation for school purposes.


The Lititz Record, Friday Morning, September 8, 1893

School Appropriations – Lancaster County will receive a total appropriation from the state for school purposed of $137,460.93, which is now due and will probably soon be forwarded. Of this bit amount the portion Lititz will receive is $1302.36; Warwick, $2833.04; Clay, $1418.13; Elizabeth, $845.73; Ephrata township, $2861.97; Ephrata boro, $2119.15; Penn, $1971.23; Manheim township, $2858.76; Manheim boro, $1942.28.


The Lititz Record, Friday Morning, November 17, 1893

The Teachers In Session – The forty-second annual session of the Lancaster County Teachers’ Institute was opened at Lancaster on Monday. Over 600 teachers were enrolled. The organization effected was as follows:

President: Prof. M.J. Brecht, County Superintendent, Lancaster.

Vice Presidents: Dr. R.K. Buehrle, City Superintendent, Lancaster; S.H. Hoffman, Columbia; Prof. J.H. Shenck, Manheim; R.R. Pleam, Marietta.

Secretary: A.R. Stamy, Lancaster.

Treasurer: De. J.P. McCaskey, Lancaster.

Roll Keeper: G.B.O. Felty, Conestoga; T.C. Kachel, Manor.

The opening devotional exercises were conducted by Rev. Charles L. Fry, pastor of Trinity Lutheran church and then the address of welcome was delivered by the Hon. David McMullen, President of the Lancaster City School Board.

On Tuesday afternoon Mr. William Riddle, an old Lancaster county school teacher, gave a very interesting talk on a “Tall-ho through Lancaster county,” in which he took his hearers on an imaginary trip from the western to the eastern border of the county.


The Lititz Record, Friday Morning, December 29, 1893

Round The Town – In the public school at Kissel Hill taught by J.J. Biemesderfer all the pupils were treated to candies and oranges last Friday, while the teacher was much surprised when the pupils produced a big turkey and presented it to him. We dare say there were many joyous hearts in that school.


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